Batteries are a very important component in the transport systems of the future. All electrically powered vehicles will use batteries and the volumes are expected to be very large. This is why it is important to develop environmentally friendly material and manufacturing techniques from the start
The manufacture of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries is dominated by solvent based technology with substantial health- and environmental complications. The solvent which is used, NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidone), is classified as toxic and can cause genetic damage. Apart from health and environmental reasons there are also economic aspects, as handling toxic chemicals on a large scale is very expensive.
Swerea IVF has experience of developing water based systems for ceramic pastes and this knowledge is applied to the development of water based pastes for lithium ion batteries.
Lithium air batteries have received a lot of attention as alternatives to lithium ion batteries due to their high energy density. However, development of innovative materials is necessary in order for the technology to become implemented. In the EU project “STABLE”, Swerea IVF is part of a multidisciplinary team which works with producing lithium air batteries with high capacity and long service life. Among other things, Swerea IVF is responsible for carrying out risk- and life cycle assessments of the newly developed technology to ensure that the effects on the environment during manufacture, use and recycling are minimized.
Posner, S., (2009) Riskanalys kemikalier i Li-batterier (in Swedish)
Zackrisson, M., Avellán, L. and Orlenius, J. (2010) “Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – Critical issues”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, Issue 15, 1519-1529
Avellán L.,Orlenius J., Zackrisson M.,(2010) “Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – Critical issues”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Article in press http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.06.004